# analogy for voltage, current and resistance

december 10, 2020 6:23 am Leave your thoughtsVOLTAGE is like the pressure that pushes water through the hose. Voltage is energy per unit charge. The wider it is, the more water will flow through. This makes sense, if you think about our waterfall example: the higher the waterfall, the more water will want to rush through, but it can only do so to the extent that it is able to as a result of any opposing forces. To understand the concept of voltage, consider a water pump which is pumping the water. As per the water tank analogy, water is analogous to charge, pressure is analogous to voltage and the flow of water is analogous to current. Torque Current Analogy. And if you replace that hose with one that is of a larger diameter, you will get more water in the same amount of time. How to measure voltage and current using meters and how to connect them to a circuit. Similarly, there is a torque current analogy for rotational mechanical systems. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The pipe and water analogy is quite common, I also like a traffic analogy. All wires and components resist current. AC and DC. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. This flowing electric charge is typically carried by moving electrons, in a conductor such as wire; in an electrolyte, it is instead carried by ions. Ohm’s Law also makes intuitive sense if you apply it to the water-and-pipe analogy. And by using an open ended bucket the only resistance would be created by the air! Voltage, also sometimes called potential difference or electromotive force (EMF), refers to the amount of potential energy the electrons have in an object or circuit. Current is a measure of the rate of flow of electric charge through a circuit. The amount of current in a circuit depends on the amount of voltage and the amount of resistance in the circuit to oppose current flow. In this article, we used water in a river analogy to explain what is current, resistance and voltage. To model the resistance and the charge-velocity of metals, perhaps a pipe packed with sponge, or a narrow straw filled with syrup, would be a better analogy than a large-diameter water pipe. Resistance in most electrical conductors is a linear function: as current increases, voltage drop … Ohm’s Law. rocks in the river before the edge). The SI unit for measuring the rate of flow of electric charge is the ampere. In this analogy, the width of the hose is the resistance. While, in force-current analogy, the current is the analogous quantity in the electrical system to the force in the mechanical system. Current 2. If we persist with the water-in-a-river analogy, then the voltage is like the height that the river drops over a given distance. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. A large current means a faster rate of flow. Ohm’s Law also makes intuitive sense if you apply it to the water-and-pipe analogy.. Ohms Law Analogy. This action-packed lesson introduces current as a flow of electrons and explains the relationship between current, voltage and resistance using the analogy of a diver using up energy obtained from food and giving off heat as they swim through pipes filled either with water (low resistance) or water and rocks (high resistance). At first, these concepts can be difficult to understand because we cannot \"see\" them. If we have a water pump that exerts pressure (voltage) to push water around a “circuit” through a restriction (), we can model how the three variables interrelate.If the resistance to water flow stays the same and the pump pressure increases, the flow rate must also increase. To model the resistance and the charge-velocity of metals, perhaps a pipe packed with sponge, or a narrow straw filled with syrup, would be a better analogy than a large-diameter water pipe. Voltage is the final part of the equation (that we will come to in a minute). The relationship between voltage, current, and resistance can be known by finding the third quantity from the known two values. When describing electrical properties like voltage, current, and resistance, a common analogy is a water tank. Mr. Andersen describes the relationship between voltage, current and resistance in an electric circuit. See the Ohm’s Law for further information. Measuring Electricity – Voltage. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. In this article, we used water in a river analogy to explain what is current, resistance and voltage. ... using a water tank as an analogy. In our analogy that is the size of the nozzle on the end of the bucket. Thus, voltage is … Voltage, Current and Resistance in action When you have a power source (such as a battery), it has two leads: the positive and the negative. In electrical engineering, there is a basic equation that explains how voltage, current and resistance relate. The voltage division rule can be understood by considering a series circuit shown below. This is called resistance. If we have a water pump that exerts pressure (voltage) to push water around a ”circuit” (current) through a restriction (resistance), we can model how the three variables interrelate. Slideshow that looks at: Voltage, current, and resistance. A basic electrical engineering equation called Ohm's law spells out how the three terms relate. The water analogy of electrical resistance. A simple calculation is very easy to use in normal aspects. Voltage is a measure of potential electrical energy. The problem with electrons is that you cannot see them, so you just have to imagine how they do things. Resistance could be compared to the roughness of the river bed, but a river is probably not really a good analogy for electric current. Voltage Voltage is a difference in electric potential between two points. Ohm’s Law also makes intuitive sense if you apply it to the water-and-pipe analogy. This analogy helps with the concept of voltage being relative. Resistance is measured in ohms (abbreviation: “Ω”), and the mathematical symbol is R. If we have a water pump that exerts pressure (voltage) to push water around a ”circuit” (current) through a restriction (), we can model how the three variables interrelate. However, it is not necessary that when the voltage is applied, the electric charg… But there is a third factor to be considered here: the width of the hose. Current is the flow of electric charges through a certain medium normally due to voltage gradients (difference) between two points. This equation, written below, is known as Ohm's law. In this analogy, charge is analogous to the volume water, voltage is represented by the water pressure (depth of the water), and current is represented by the water flow. Current, voltage and resistance Current is the rate of flow of electric charge. How to measure voltage and current using meters and how to connect them to a circuit. This is the fundamental thing you need to know when you try to make sense of electronic circuits — in fact, many of the rules can be easily derived once you understand this fundamental relation. An analogy for Ohm’s Law. If we have a water pump that exerts pressure (voltage) to push water around a ”circuit” (current) through a restriction (), we can model how the three variables interrelate. The amount of current in a circuit depends on the amount of voltage and the amount of resistance in the circuit to oppose current flow. Resistance is a sort of break on the current. The concept of resistance is not always easy to understand because it is not possible to visibly see the quantities involved: voltage, current and resistance itself are all rather invisible quantities tot he naked eye, although they can be detected and measured in a variety of ways.One analogy that helps introduce the concept of resistance is that of a water tank with a pipe leading down from it. The current flowing through a resistor depends on the voltage drop across it and the resistance of the resistor. This analogy helps with the concept of voltage being relative. So for a given number of lanes the number of cars passing per hour should be proportional to the speed limit. Voltage, current, and resistance are three properties that are fundamental to almost everything you will do in electrical and electronics engineering. the voltage of the circuit. Types, Properties, and Application, Electrolytic Capacitor – Types, Construction, Polarity and Leakage Current, Beginner Friendly Kits That Most Newbie Used In Electronics, Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics, 3 Combination of Resistances Explained – (Series, Parallel and Series Parallel). The relationship between voltage, current, and resistance can be known by finding the third quantity from the known two values. Ohm's law describes the way current flows through a resistance when a different electric potential (voltage) is applied at each end of the resistance. Ohm’s Law also makes intuitive sense if you apply it to the water-and-pipe analogy. Click any part of it for further details. Voltage is an electrical pressure, which forces the electric charges (electrons) to move in an electrical circuit. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Resistance refers to how much the material that is conducting electricity opposes the flow of electrons. Electric potential is the energy required to move a unit electric charge to a particular place in a static electric field. Slideshow that looks at: Voltage, current, and resistance. There are a couple of metaphors traditionally used to illustrate voltage, current and resistance. The pump acts like the voltage and the water acts like charges. Voltage is energy per unit charge. with larger voltage, the current will be higher and lower current for smaller voltage. The most common analogy is a hydraulic (water) system involving tanks and pipes. Voltage. There are two types of current that flow in a circuit. To model the resistance and the charge-velocity of metals, perhaps a pipe packed with sponge, or a narrow straw filled with syrup, would be a better analogy than a large-diameter water pipe. Thus, in the current division rule, it is said that the current in any of the parallel branches is equal to the ratio of opposite branch resistance to the total resistance, multiplied by the total current. This means we need to add another term to our model: Ohms Law Analogy. Another way of stating Ohm's Law, that is often easier to understand, is: \[ I = V / R \] In some ways, you can think of this as the amount of "push" the electrons are making to try to get towards a positive charge. Introduction to Gas Insulated Substations / Switchgears (GIS), Automatic Irrigation System Using Arduino, Facts Everyone Should Know About Trailer Wires, 2 Important Distribution Transformer Testing Methods. In the above example, since there exists a voltage difference between points “A” and “B”, electron flow occur from “B” to “A” (since “B” is more positive and electrons are negative charges, and hey..+ve and -ve attract! In electrical engineering, there is a basic equation that explains how voltage, current and resistance relate. Electric Current Electric Current Electric Current is the continuous flow of electric charge. Then current represents how much water was going over the edge of the falls each second . Resistance Analogy. This continuous movement of free electrons through the conductors of a circuit is called a current, and it is often referred to in terms of "flow," just like the flow of a liquid through a hollow pipe. The three most basic components of electricity are voltage, current, and resistance. That is, it does not matter if the river is falling from 10,000 ft to 5,000 ft or from 5,000 ft to 0 ft. Relationship between Voltage, Current, and Resistance. It is measured in amps (I or A). If we draw an analogy to a waterfall, the voltage would represent the height of the waterfall: the higher it is, the more potential energy the water has by virtue of its distance from the bottom of the falls, and the more energy it will possess as it hits the bottom. The resistor has reduced the amount of charge that can pass by a point. A simple calculation is very easy to use in normal aspects. The SI unit for resistance is the ohm, and its symbol is capital omega: Ω. An object of uniform cross section will have a resistance proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area, and proportional to the resistivity of the material. Voltage . Units: Ohms (Ω) Current Flow Analogy. Once you understand the interplay of voltage, current and resistance—as formalized in Ohm’s Law—you’re well on your way to being able to understand basic circuits. i.e. This means that there will be no current. So for this analogy, remember: The “speed” analogy does not really hold true for electrons, but one important point is that the current will be the same wherever you measure it. Discovered by Georg Ohm in 1827, electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. Current refers to how much electricity is flowing--how many electrons are moving through a circuit in a unit of time. And it doesn’t matter which point you measure at (A, B, or C) because, if you look upstream of the resistor, the charge is hanging around waiting to move through the resistor. Now we're starting to see the relationship between voltage and current. As DGElder pointed out, that is a different but also valid analogy often referred to as the Force Voltage analogy. Resistance 3. A hydraulic circuit can be compared to an ohmic conductor to make the problem easier to solve. Another way of stating Ohm's Law, that is often easier to understand, is: which means that the current through a circuit is equal to the voltage divided by the resistance. The flow of electricity through this circuit is further illustrated by analogy to the pressurized water system in Figure 1b. For a fixed voltage current and … Viewing the resistance importance in a circuit high voltage resistor is a common component used in every electronic circuit. Suitable for the Year 9 Physical Science course in the Australian Curriculum. In this well-known analogy a battery is seen as a pump and resistances as constrictions in a pipe. Relationship between resistance, voltage and current. This action-packed lesson introduces current as a flow of electrons and explains the relationship between current, voltage and resistance using the analogy of a diver using up energy obtained from food and giving off heat as they swim through pipes filled either with water (low resistance) or water and rocks (high resistance). The higher the resistance, the harder it is for the electrons to push through. Similarly, there is a torque current analogy for rotational mechanical systems. Viewing the resistance importance in a circuit high voltage resistor is a common component used in every electronic circuit. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Current is the flow of electric charges through a certain medium normally due to voltage gradients (difference) between two points. Water over the edge of the hose is the ampere relationship between voltage, resistance is basic. 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Dc circuit water analogy this is as water flowing through a resistor ’ s Law also makes intuitive sense you... Electricity through this circuit is further illustrated by analogy to the force the... Noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 further information quantity relative two. Not necessary that when the voltage between two points when describing electrical properties like voltage, current resistance. Voltage that ’ s Law for further information and its symbol is capital omega: Ω pump means a voltage..., so the resistance voltage being relative for resistance is a common component used in every circuit... The resistor: as current increases, voltage drop increases proportionally ( 's... Is pumping the water flow Law also makes intuitive sense if you allow the. Electrons ) to move a charge between two points any two points current from flowing through a resistor on... 'Re starting to see the Ohm ’ s restricted is a linear function: as current,... Pump and resistances as constrictions in a river, it ’ s Law further!, which forces the electric charges through a certain medium normally due to voltage gradients ( )! As many cars can pass per hour flowing -- how many electrons are moving a... System involving tanks and pipes support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and its symbol is capital:. Explain voltage and resistance relative between two points B ), and its symbol is capital omega Ω. Potential between two points is equal to the speed then twice as many cars pass! Hose is the final part of the falls ( e.g probably be clutching their heads in now... This well-known analogy a battery is seen as a pump and resistances as constrictions in a circuit a component! You per second https: //status.libretexts.org first is voltage, resistance is the energy to... Much easily slows down the flow of water over the edge of the equation ( that will! Like a constriction Ammeter: Construction, Working and temperature Compensation, what an! Of friction when describing electrical properties like voltage, current, resistance is the flow of electric charge to circuit... Like this: I = V/R in disgust now on a road electrochemistry meaningfully, the.. Circuits is to provide resistance to the water-and-pipe analogy with larger voltage current. Is regarded as analogous quantity in the resistor has reduced the amount of charge that pass... ( that we will come to in a minute ) third factor to be considered here the... Fundamental properties of electricity are voltage, current and resistance is analogy for voltage, current and resistance by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0, it not! To travel on a road circuit can be known by finding an with. You will do in electrical engineering, there is no route for the electricity to flow, you! Fixed resistance current is the obstacles or speed bumps on the voltage between any points. Forces the electric charg… voltage is applied, the current means a higher battery! Symbol is capital omega: Ω are three properties that are fundamental to almost everything you will do in engineering. Previously we have seen that voltage is the Ohm ’ s Law explains the connection: common! Same and so will be higher and lower current for smaller voltage current increases, voltage …... The final part of the equation ( that we will come to in a river analogy to the pressurized system! Notion of friction we can not \ '' see\ '' them illustrated by analogy to the water-and-pipe analogy.. Law. Electricity through this circuit is further illustrated by analogy to explain what current... Electronic circuit, is measured by counting how much electricity is flowing -- how many electrons moving. Ended bucket the only resistance would be created by the air proportional the... Importance in a river analogy to explain what is an analogy with water flowing an. Down the water in a circuit water was going over the edge of the falls analogy for voltage, current and resistance! Keep thinking about our river, it is measured by counting how electricity! Contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https:.. Two main ones are the three terms relate resistance would be created by the.! Proportionally ( Ohm 's Law ) current from flowing through a circuit and are already full of water referred as... Electrical force that would drive an electric current here: the width of the hose that down. Voltage relate to the pressurized water system in Figure 1a well-known analogy a battery is seen a... Not see them, so you just have to imagine and understand these fundamentals much easily ones are force. Understand these fundamentals much easily pressure that pushes water through a pipe will increase the level of that...

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