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Socrates was the teacher of Plato, who admired Socrates very much, while Socrates probably considered Plato as one of his favorite pupils. ", Summary and Analysis of Plato's 'Euthyphro', An Introduction to Plato and His Philosophical Ideas, The Allegory of the Cave From the Republic of Plato, Plato and Aristotle on Women: Selected Quotes, Moral Philosophy According to Immanuel Kant, The 5 Great Schools of Ancient Greek Philosophy, The Slave Boy Experiment in Plato's 'Meno', Stoics and Moral Philosophy - The 8 Principles of Stoicism, Ph.D., Philosophy, The University of Texas at Austin, B.A., Philosophy, University of Sheffield. Crito should be reminded that it is only the opinion of those who have a clear understanding of what is right and wrong that should influence his decision. From this it follows that a person must never repay ill-treatment by ill-treatment; no treatment received from another ever justifies doing something wrong in return. They will say that his friend Crito might have saved him if he had been willing to furnish the money to purchase his freedom. conversation that may have been held during such a visit. Plato wrote down from memory Socrates' "Dialogues". For instance, the Laws claim that citizens owe them the same sort of obedience and respect that children owe their parents. The date for Socrates' execution has been delayed for about a month, pending the return of the ship from the island of Delos. that depicts a conversation between Socrates and his rich friend Crito in a prison cell in Athens in the year 399 B.C.E. We do know that after the death of Socrates, Plato did leave Athens because he did not think it would be safe for him to remain there. The life of Socrates. The brief reference to his dream is an example of the popular belief that events may be foretold in that manner. His entire life bears witness to the fact that he has accepted the institutions of the society into which he was born, and it is an essential part of the system under which that society operates that its citizens shall respect and obey the decisions of its duly constituted courts. The dialogue covers subjects such as the meaning of piety and justice. Acting in harmony with this voice, he was accustomed to do what he believed was right, and he would not depart from this course in order to save his own life. Socrates has been in prison for about a month, owing to the fact that no execution of a criminal would be allowed in the city until a certain ship has returned from the island of Delos. Socrates states that if such is the will of God, he is willing to die. Although one may violate the laws of the land in order to satisfy the demands of his conscience, he has the moral obligation to accept the penalty for the violation of those laws that is imposed by the state. Euthyphro (/ ˈ juː θ ɪ f r oʊ /; Ancient Greek: Εὐθύφρων, romanized: Euthyphrōn; c. 399–395 BC), by Plato, is a Socratic dialogue whose events occur in the weeks before the trial of Socrates (399 BC), between Socrates and Euthyphro. He has no right to bring children into the world and then fail to provide them with the nurture and education to which they are entitled. Socrates asks Crito to consider for a moment what the officials of the government might say to him under the existing circumstances. Socrates could not go back on his obligations to the city, and unless commanded to do that which in his judgment was morally wrong, he was duty-bound to obey its laws. CRITO: Well, I will not dispute with you; but please to tell me, Socrates, whether you are not acting out of regard to me and your other friends: are you not afraid that if you escape from prison we may get into trouble with the informers for having stolen you away, and lose either the whole or a great part of our property; or that even a … According to one view, its purpose was to serve as a corrective measure that would be of benefit to the criminal by helping him to overcome his evil tendencies. In the same way, he pushes aside such considerations as how much escaping would cost, or how likely it is that the plan would succeed. Ought one to accept the penalty imposed on him by legal means that are unjust? The conversation between Crito and Socrates takes place in the early hours of the morning. virtue and justice in relation to state who wrote crito? If, acting on the advice of men who have no understanding, we injure the body, is it not true that we will incur an even greater evil by following the advice of those who have no proper understanding of the meaning of justice and that which pertains to that part of human nature that is superior to the body? All rights reserved. that depicts a conversation between Socrates and his rich friend Crito in a prison cell in Athens in the year 399 B.C.E. Is it the opinion of the many or of the one who is his instructor or trainer? Crito has come for the purpose of pleading with Socrates to escape from prison. He cannot do this without going back on the principles for which he has stood throughout his entire life. Socrates argues against defying the law, even though Crito is willing to help him. Plato's dialogue "Crito" is a composition originating in 360 B.C.E. bookmarked pages associated with this title. They might say something like the following: "There is clear proof Socrates that we and the city were not displeasing to you. When the public, or any part of the community, are taking those measures or going into that practice, which may issue in ruin, and most certainly will, unless reformed; he who foresees the approaching evil cannot act a benevolent or faithful part, unless he gives warning of the danger, and does his utmost to reform and save his fellow … Crito has said that the opinion of the many should be feared because they have the power to put people to death. If he should go to one of the neighboring cities, such as Thebes or Megara, he would be regarded as an enemy and all of their patriotic citizens would look upon him as a subverter of the laws. Socrates never wrote anything down, so when he died, Plato wrote down his teachings and passed his messages on. He is who he is: a philosopher engaged in the pursuit of truth and the cultivation of virtue. Written at a level understandable to undergraduates, it is ideal for students … Such questions are all utterly irrelevant.Â The only question that matters is: would trying to escape be morally right or morally wrong? The only question at hand is whether or not it would be just for Socrates to attempt an escape. The Crito records the conversation that took place in the prison where Socrates was confined awaiting his execution.It is in the form of a dialog between Socrates and Crito, an elderly Athenian who for many years has been a devoted friend of Socrates and a firm believer in his ethical teachings. The dawn is just beginning to break, and Socrates has been sleeping soundly throughout the night. It is this contract, or implied agreement, in which the citizen promises to obey the laws of the state and to abide by the decisions of its courts that makes possible a well-ordered society in which people can live at peace with one another. Therefore, Socrates states that to try to avoid his sentence by escaping from prison would be morally wrong. To return evil for evil may be in harmony with the morality of the many, but as he has indicated before, public opinion when not supported by good reasons is never a safe guide to follow. In this instance, it proved to be correct. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. The issue that is raised in this connection has been a controversial one, and it is by no means clear that the intellectual Greeks of Socrates' day would have agreed with him. Therefore, an escape from prison in violation of the law would be an evil act on his part and in no way would counteract the evil performed by the court. Analysis of Plato's Crito The life of Socrates provides one example of a someone who seeks a justification for his or her moral actions. Those who were known to have aided him in making his escape would be driven into exile or lose their property and be deprived of citizenship. This is what Socrates intends to present as he makes his final speech in defense of the position he has taken. Socrates was Plato's teacher. Socrates does not agree that one should save his own life at any cost. At this point, Crito pleads with Socrates to take his advice and escape from prison. These notes on the text were made later, sections beginning or breaking off where a new theme or topic is introduced or dropped. The setting for Plato's dialog "Crito"Â is Socrates' prison cell in Athens in 399 B.C.E. Socrates is not at liberty to reject the decisions of the court because he believes they have gone beyond their jurisdiction or that they have made a wrong decision in his case. Socrates then reminds him that to act in that manner would be a case of returning evil for evil, which would contradict what he has already admitted should never be done. Crito lays out several reasons for why he should escape including that their enemies would think his friends were too cheap or timid to arrange for him to escape, that he would be giving his enemies what they want by dying and that he has a responsibility to his children to not leave them fatherless. He tells him that by remaining in prison and refusing to escape, he is playing into the hands of his enemies and giving aid to the ones who are disregarding the demands of justice. He is the author or co-author of several books, including "Thinking Through Philosophy: An Introduction. One reason that Crito advances is based chiefly on what he anticipates people will say in the event that Socrates remains in prison and is put to death. If, Crito says, instead of fulfilling your obligations to them, you go away and leave them to take their chances amid all the unfortunate circumstances that may arise, you cannot be held blameless if they should fall into evil ways. If these offers of assistance are not sufficient to persuade Socrates to attempt an escape from prison, Crito presents some additional reasons in support of what he has been urging him to do. In reply to what Crito has been saying, Socrates expresses his appreciation for the friendship and goodwill that have been displayed and for the zeal that has been manifested in their presentation. Socrates does not deny that he has been treated unjustly by the court, and neither does he think that the judges who condemned him were competent to determine the correctness of his religious views or to decide whether he had really been a corrupter of the youth. He wanted to deal with the moral issue involved in those situations where individuals are confronted with penalties imposed on them by unjust laws. Crito explains that he has been waiting in the prison for some little time but has remained silent because he did not want to disturb Socrates' sleep. I. The mysterious voice to which he always paid attention was to him the voice of God. His whole life exhibits a distinctive integrity, and he is determined that it will stay that way to the very end, even if it means staying in prison until his death, Emrys Westacott is a professor of philosophy at Alfred University. Phaedo, a dialogue describing Socrates' thoughts on death and other subjects before he drinks the fatal hemlock comes from Plato's middle, or transitional period. He has had seventy years to think it over, and during this time he was free to leave the city and go to any of those places that he praised for their good government, but instead of doing this, he chose to remain in our city and to abide by its laws. Unjust laws the one who is his instructor or trainer anything to say, Socrates, reply! Bookconfirmation # and any corresponding bookmarks the next-to-the-last day that Socrates has been free and.... 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