gymnodinium catenatum wikipedia

december 10, 2020 6:23 am Published by Leave your thoughts

The 4-zooid planozygote had only one nucleus and had two developmental pathways depending on food availability. The tubule, embedded within nematocyst, discharges towards the prey and hypothesized to be used for prey puncturing. It has been observed many times all over the world . Gymnodinium catenatum Graham 1943– This species was originally described by Graham from a bloom in the Gulf of California, with a 384 word description in English . Commonly affected by changes in climate and environmental conditions, coastal areas are very dynamic environments where shellfish play an important ecological role. Polykrikos hartmannii W.Zimmermann, aureolum Hulburt in the Ria of Pontevedra (north-west Spain). PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning): toxina paralizante ou, impropiamente, paralítica, provocada por proliferación das especies Alexandium minutum e Gymnodinium catenatum. The results may contribute to the current understanding of the viral regulatory role in algal bloom events. Gymnodinium catenatum is a toxic, bloom forming species of microalgae. [3] [3][4] However, there is also some data available on Polykrikos being toxic to fish. Dendrobium catenatum [2] är en orkidéart som beskrevs av John Lindley. Short dormancy period could facilitate rapid cycling between life cycle stages that could be beneficial to heterotrophic species in case of fluctuating food availability. [10] Organelles are located in proximity, but lie within different membranes and are separated by a passage, called “chute”. Characteristics. Gymnodinium pulchellum is an unarmoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate species. Gymnodinium catenatum Graham (Dinophyceae): Morphology and affinities with armoured forms. [8] Golgi-derived vacuoles are shared by both organelles and supply each with molecules needed for its growth along with participating in NTC articulation. e a dinoflaxelados Gymnodinium catenatum e Glenodinium foliaceum. Variations of PSP toxin profiles during different growth phases in Gymnodinium catenatum Dinophyceae strain isolated from three locations in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Currently the following 10 species are accepted taxonomically: The most distinctive feature of polykrikoids is their formation of multinucleate "pseudocolonies" consisting of an even number of subunit zooids.The two genera differ in number of nuclei; possessing two nuclei regardless of the number of zooids is a synapomorphy for Polykrikos, whereas Pheopolykrikos possess equal numbers of nuclei and zooids. 麻痺性貝毒 (PSP: Paralytic Shellfish Poison) 毒成分:サキシトキシン (saxitoxin, STX)、テトロドトキシン (tetrodotoxin, TTX)、ゴニオトキシン (gonyautoxin, GTX) などによる 。; 毒化原因:、渦鞭毛藻類の Protogonyaulax tamarensis,Protogonyaulax catenella, Alexandrium tamarense, Gymnodinium catenatum、ビブリオ属の Vibrio alginolyticusなど。 de soort G. impudicum. [9] Often Polykrikos have half the number of nuclei than zooids, and each pair of zooids shares a nucleus. P.hartmannii feeds on chain-forming dinoflagellates Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Gymnodinium catenatum that are also known to cause fish mortality, and therefore P. hartmannii is thought to have enzymes that detoxify toxins produced by these prey dinoflagellates. Gymnodinium komt in alle wateren voor. Polykrikos tentaculatus O.Wetzel [18], "Molecular phylogeny of ocelloid-bearing dinoflagellates (Warnowiaceae) as inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA sequences", "First Clear View of a One-Celled Harpooner in Action", "Microbial arms race: Ballistic "nematocysts" in dinoflagellates represent a new extreme in organelle complexity", "Single-cell transcriptomics using spliced leader PCR: Evidence for multiple losses of photosynthesis in polykrikoid dinoflagellates", "Grazing impacts of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate, "Reduction in the toxicity of the dinoflagellate, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polykrikos&oldid=951287988, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 April 2020, at 12:27. Van de meer dan 200 soorten worden er ongeveer 30 in zoet water aangetroffen. : Bacillariophyceae: Hydrophilic N-toxin: Glutamate receptor agonist: Saxitoxins (neosaxitoxins, gonyautoxins): Alexandrium spp., Pyrodinium bahamense, Gymnodinium catenatum… Predation of toxic microalgae by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is one of the factors controlling the algal blooms. However, molecular data analysis by Gavelis et al. Presence of specialised NTC and large cell size might have triggered multiple losses of photosynthesis. Toxin group Toxin producing species Class Characteristics Mode of action Structure Domoic acid: Pseudo-nitzschia spp. [3][4] Gymnodinium belong to red dinoflagellates that, in concentration, can cause red tides. A few species produce toxins that may be concentrated in shellfish and finfish, which are thereby rendered unsafe or poisonous for human consumption. Gymnodinium catenatum is an unarmoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate species. This species is a known producer of toxins and is thus heavily studied. [17] Some polykrikoid population monitoring and investigation of toxin dynamics inside the body of grazers could provide better understanding of plankton-based food webs, estimate degrees of poisoning in ecosystems and propose potential toxin elimination routes. Polykrikos is a colony of zooids (units of a colonial organism) that carry out simultaneous functions of a whole cell. The toxin is produced by dinoflagellates, such as Protogonyaulax sp., Pyrodinium sp., Gymnodinium catenatum, Alexandrium catenella, and Alexandrium minutum. G. catenatum is one of the species causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and is found in waters of Australia, Japan, Mexico and Spain. It is a chain-forming, toxin-producing, red tide species associated with PSP events throughout the world. In this study, the oxidative stress and genotoxic responses of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) - producing dinoflagellates Gymnodinium catenatum were evaluated under i) … [5], "Molecular typing of the red-tide dinoflagellate, "The Taxonomic Significance of Species That Have Only Been Observed Once: The Genus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gymnodinium&oldid=991936963, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 16:39. Contreras. [13][8], Polykrikos hartmannii is a phototrophic dinoflagellate and has been reported in waters of Canada,[14] USA, Mexico, China, India, Japan, Korea,. Sommige soorten Gymnodinium vormen kettingachtige kolonies, zoals o.a. Characteristics. 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And Polykrikos herdmanae that are found in diatoms and haptophytes biconical and lobed to pyriform different sizes and morphologies vegetative! Number of nuclei than zooids, and striated strand common to other.! Zooids ( units of a colonial organism ) that carry out simultaneous functions of 2-zooid-1-nucleus...

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