the truth about the british empiredecember 10, 2020 6:23 am Leave your thoughts
Elkins laid out what she makes of this development in a 2015 essay for the American Historical Review. Badger sees a different lesson in the Hanslope disclosure: a “profound sense of contingency”. Her prose seethed with outrage. Under legal pressure, the government finally acknowledged that the records had been stashed at a high-security storage facility that the Foreign Office shared with the intelligence agencies MI5 and MI6. It was guilty for Millions of deaths around the world yet peoples nowadays forget about this and remember the British Empire as a Good old day tea loving empire which fought against evil Napoleon, Kaiser Wilhelm II and Hitler rather than being as bad as Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union or the Empire of Japan. Yes, imaginary evidence, ‘fake news’ in its purest form, to damn the Brits in general and the Empire in particular. “I’ve come to believe that during the Mau Mau war British forces wielded their authority with a savagery that betrayed a perverse colonial logic,” Elkins wrote in Britain’s Gulag. Last modified on Wed 4 Dec 2019 08.25 EST. Their case made the same claim as Britain’s Gulag: this was part of systematic violence against detainees, sanctioned by British authorities. This would be an ambitious study of violence at the end of the British empire, one that would take her far beyond the controversy that had engulfed her Mau Mau work. Elkins was in the top-floor study of her home in Cambridge, Massachusetts, when the call came. It was also, comparatively, the most benign. Elkins had uncovered 'a murderous campaign that left tens of thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands, dead'. Britain’s Gulag, titled Imperial Reckoning in the US, earned Elkins a great deal of attention and a Pulitzer prize. But it hinged on the public ignorance of African history and the scholarly marginalisation of Africanist research, wrote Bruce J Berman, a historian of African political economy at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario. We receive no independent funding and depend on our readers to help us, either with regular or one-off payments. Nothing about Caroline Elkins suggests her as an obvious candidate for the role of Mau Mau avenger. In retrospect, he says, what is remarkable is not that the documents were kept secret for so many years. She met people such as Salome Maina, who had been accused of supplying arms to the Mau Mau. SUBSCRIBE TO ALWAYS FIND US: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCIAP_iRoHdV3nV3n1JqZGFQ?sub_confirmation=1 Maina told Elkins she had been beaten unconscious by Kikuyu collaborating with the British. The claimants marching beside her were just like the people she had interviewed in Kenya. A certificate of destruction was to be issued for every document destroyed – in duplicate. This was a motif of articles on Elkins in the popular press. “What’s a nice young lady like you working on a topic like this for?” he asked Elkins, as she recalled the conversation years later. “Keep my head down and be an academic. All Kenyan files were to be classified either “Watch” or “Legacy”. Unlike most other websites, we receive no independent funding. Some thought she was British and refused to speak with her at first. Abu Ghraib. The truth is that the Brits may have been top dogs when it came to the size, power and influence of their empire but we have definitely been well down the league table of those who have perpetrated massacres. They also rolled their eyes at the narrative Elkins told about her work. Colonial authorities portrayed Mau Mau as a descent into savagery, turning its fighters into “the face of international terrorism in the 1950s”, as one scholar puts it. But many other scholars slammed the book. Few imperial powers have been so willing to admit to their own sins. She met a former colonial official, Terence Gavaghan, who had been in charge of rehabilitation at a group of detention camps on Kenya’s Mwea Plain. In the British and Kenyan archives, meanwhile, Elkins encountered another oddity. She looked at the file boxes around her. This was called the “dilution technique”. The broad strokes of British misbehaviour were known by the late 60s, Berman argued. She was willingly gullible as Sanghera explained to her how things have gone so wrong with our understanding of the Empire: I think we have this narrative in Britain where we are always the good guys, you know. Elkins emerged with a book that turned her initial thesis on its head. The Truth About the British Empire By The Conservative Woman The British Empire was the greatest imperial power that the world has ever seen. British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies— colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government. One of the most widely used school history textbooks, for example, much reprinted, is entitled Minds and Machines: Britain 1750-1900. Ogot also suggested that Elkins might have made up quotes and fallen for the bogus stories of financially motivated interviewees. Just as the hearings were set to begin, a story broke in the British press that would affect the case, the debate about Britain’s Gulag, and the broader community of imperial historians. Elkins was also accused of sensationalism, a charge that figured prominently in a fierce debate over her mortality figures. By conveying the perspective of the Mau Mau themselves, Britain’s Gulag marked a “historical breakthrough”, says Wm Roger Louis, a historian of the British empire at the University of Texas at Austin. The Times splashed the news across its front page: “50 years later: Britain’s Kenya cover-up revealed.”. “Probably most of the historical criticisms of the book still stand,” he says. The Mau Mau uprising had long fascinated scholars. The Mughal Empire which Britain supplanted in the sub-continent was many, many times worse. “Good God,” she thought. “If you make a really radical claim about history, you really need to back it up solidly.”, Critics didn’t just find the substance overstated. But for years clues had existed that Britain had also expatriated colonial records that were considered too sensitive to be left in the hands of successor governments. This marred what was otherwise an “incredibly valuable” study, he says. The Ten Commandments Revisited: 4. It was a tale of systematic violence and high-level cover-ups. British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is a pseudoarchaeological belief that the people of the British Isles are "genetically, racially, and linguistically the direct descendants" of the Ten Lost Tribes of ancient Israel. But that thesis crumbled as Elkins dug into her research. Britain’s Gulag had broken important new ground, providing the most comprehensive chronicle yet of the detention camps and prison villages. “I don’t think the trial really changes that.”, Susan L Carruthers feels the same about her own criticism of Britain’s Gulag. By 2008, Elkins’s job was on the line. “If, at that late date,” he wrote, “she still believed in the official British line about its so-called civilising mission in the empire, then she was perhaps the only scholar or graduate student in the English-speaking world who did.”. It also revealed a bigger secret. The massacre of hundreds in Amritsar was indeed ‘monstrous’, as Churchill said at the time, but it was atypical. Elkins, questioning him in London, found him creepy and defensive. Mau Mau was still a banned movement in Kenya, and would remain so until 2002. The evidence backing this account comes from Justice McCombe, whose 2011 decision had stressed the substantial documentation supporting accusations of systematic abuses. No review was more devastating than the one that Bethwell A Ogot, a senior Kenyan historian, published in the Journal of African History. “In this very long book, she really doesn’t bring out any more evidence than that for talking about the possibility of hundreds of thousands killed, and talking in terms almost of genocide as a policy,” says Philip Murphy, a University of London historian who directs the Institute of Commonwealth Studies and co-edits the Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. “The overarching takeaway is that the government itself was involved in a very highly choreographed, systematised process of destroying and removing documents so it could craft the official narrative that sits in these archives,” Elkins told me. We’re a little tougher. In camps, villages and other outposts, the Kikuyu suffered forced labour, disease, starvation, torture, rape and murder. Maybe it was the squirrel-like tendency of archivists. Then came Bagram. “Only by detaining nearly the entire Kikuyu population of 1.5 million people and physically and psychologically atomising its men, women, and children could colonial authority be restored and the civilising mission reinstated.” After nearly a decade of oral and archival research, she had uncovered “a murderous campaign to eliminate Kikuyu people, a campaign that left tens of thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands, dead”. To secure a permanent position, she needed to make progress on her second book. The issue of archival erasure figures prominently in Elkins’s next book, a history of violence at the end of the British empire whose case studies will include Kenya, Aden, Cyprus, Malaya, Palestine and Northern Ireland. The truth about the British empire – podcasts of the week. “I was kind of like a dog with a bone,” she says. These days in schools and universities young people are subjected to a non-stop diet of anti-British brainwashing about Empire. He thinks Elkins and other historians did “hugely important” work on the case. This delegation was “systematically and deliberately misled in its meetings with British diplomats and archivists,” Anderson writes in a History Workshop Journal article, Guilty Secrets: Deceit, Denial and the Discovery of Kenya’s ‘Migrated Archive’. • Follow the Long Read on Twitter at @gdnlongread, or sign up to the long read weekly email here. One, Paulo Nzili, said he had been castrated with pliers at a detention camp. In high school, she worked at a pizza shop that was run by what she calls “low-level mob”. That’s when the phone rang, pulling her back in. But among Kenyanists, Berman wrote, the reaction had generally been no more than: “It was as bad as or worse than I had imagined from more fragmentary accounts.”, He called Elkins “astonishingly disingenuous” for saying her project began as an attempt to show the success of Britain’s liberal reforms. Stamped “secret”, it revealed a system for breaking recalcitrant detainees by isolating them, torturing them and forcing them to work. The oppressive force in this case was neither a class nor a generation but the British empire itself: a regime founded on violence and hostile to dissent. A new podcast from ABC (the Australian Broadcasting Company) begins with a very simple premise: throughout the history of the British empire, British soldiers stole an awful lot of artefacts, objects and works of art from around the world, many of which still sit in British museums today. Now here came this interloper from the US, blowing open the Mau Mau story, winning a Pulitzer, landing media coverage. Working with five students at Harvard, she found thousands of records relevant to the case: more evidence about the nature and extent of detainee abuse, more details of what officials knew about it, new material about the brutal “dilution technique” used to break hardcore detainees. Its authors include senior educational advisers to government. The Watch files would be flown back to Britain or destroyed. “I imagined it more of a haphazard kind of process.”, What’s more, “It’s not just happening in Kenya to this level, but all over the empire.” For British historians, this is “absolutely seismic,” she said. Don’t go out and be on the front page of the paper.”, She said yes. The disclosure sparked an uproar in the press and flabbergasted Elkins: “After all these years of being just roasted over the coals, they’ve been sitting on the evidence? A London law firm was preparing to file a reparations claim on behalf of elderly Kenyans who had been tortured in detention camps during the Mau Mau revolt. Elkins’s work, he wrote, depended heavily on the “largely uncorroborated 50-year-old memories of a few elderly men and women interested in financial reparations”. Back in London, Foreign Office lawyers conceded that the elderly Kenyan claimants had suffered torture during the Mau Mau rebellion. That was white men from Oxbridge, not a young American girl from Harvard,” she says. Thank you. But if the response to her latest claims is any indication, her arguments will once again be controversial. Her case for tenure, once on the fast track, had been delayed in response to criticism of her work. “Basically, I read document after document after document that proved the book to be correct,” Elkins says. British Empire: Students should be taught colonialism ‘not all good’, say historians. Pick of our readers’ comments: Would you go back to Eton? With roots in the 16th century, British Israelism was inspired by several 19th century English writings such as John Wilson's 1840 Our Israelitish Origin. They’ve been far more sceptical than that, he says. Threatened and shunned by colleagues and critics, Caroline Elkins persevered and brought to life the atrocities that were committed and hidden from the world for decades.”, But some scholars find aspects of Elkins’s vindication story unconvincing. Through vicious military conquest, it used enslavement, massacres, famines and partitions to create profit. Her book cut against an abiding belief that the British had managed and retreated from their empire with more dignity and humanity than other former colonial powers, such as the French or the Belgians. You can donate here. The files within would be a reminder to historians of just how far a government would go to sanitise its past. Others branded her a self-aggrandising crusader whose overstated findings had relied on sloppy methods and dubious oral testimonies. Foul-mouthed, fast-talking and hyperbolic, Elkins can sound more Central Jersey than Harvard Yard. This drain of resources left India poorer. For her senior thesis, Elkins visited archives in London and Nairobi to study the shifting roles of women from Kenya’s largest ethnic group, the Kikuyu. Plus: sad tales and silver linings in Susan Calman’s Mrs BrightsideWe Need to Talk About the British Empire There was a time when the sun never set on the British Empire. It was so shocking that the Hunter Commission of inquiry was set up. In October 2012, Justice McCombe rejected those arguments, too. To Elkins, the vituperation felt over the top. The files could easily have been trashed on at least three occasions, he says, probably without publicity. She classifies fellow scholars as friends or enemies. Over. At least two scholars have noted that these new files corroborated important aspects of the oral testimony in Britain’s Gulag, such as the systematic beating and torture of detainees at specific detention camps. Elkins enrolled in Harvard’s history PhD programme knowing she wanted to study those camps. It would be almost impossible to state the opposite of the truth with more misleading sincerity. The time has surely arrived for all of us to be as proud of Empire at that great Victorian, Mary Seacole, whose statue stands opposite parliament and whose country of origin, Jamaica, so yearns for a return to its imperial past. That fight took place in a system of detention camps. Now the lawyer running the case wanted her to sign on as an expert witness. Some academics shared her enthusiasm. Kenyan history, she says, was “an old boys’ club”. We are a … But she eventually gained their trust. The British destroyed documents in Kenya – scholars knew that. on Twitter Foreign Office lawyers conceded that the elderly Kenyan claimants had suffered torture during the Mau Mau rebellion. It also fed speculation that many more colonial abuse claims would crop up from across an empire that once ruled about a quarter of the earth’s population. This is a free service and we will never share your details. “This is the moment where literally my footnotes are on trial.”. Matilda Marcus. Her career was now secure: Harvard had awarded her tenure in 2009, based on Britain’s Gulag and the research she had done for a second book. Indeed most of areas of the world ruled by British empire … But she remained nervous about the case. But the ferocity of the response went beyond what she could have imagined. (shelved 11 times as … A retired head teacher with 35 years’ teaching experience, Chris is a former advisor to the Policy Unit at 10 Downing Street under two Prime Ministers. They waged a forest war against 20,000 Mau Mau fighters, and, with African allies, also targeted a bigger civilian enemy: roughly 1.5 million Kikuyu thought to have proclaimed their allegiance to the Mau Mau campaign for land and freedom. The facility occupies a 1970s-era concrete building beside a pond in Kew, in south-west London. Then the Hanslope disclosure added extensive documentation about the scale and scope of what went on. Tony Badger, a University of Cambridge professor emeritus who monitored the Hanslope files’ release, writes that there was “no systematic process dictated from London”. The British had sought to quell the Mau Mau uprising by instituting a policy of mass detention. To be a subject of the British Empire, however, was to win first prize in the lottery of imperial rule. And, as Elkins would eventually learn, Gavaghan had developed the technique and put it into practice. One morning this spring, I accompanied Elkins as she visited the National Archives to look at those files. Blatant dishonesty, writes David M Anderson, a University of Warwick historian and author of Histories of the Hanged, a highly regarded book about the Mau Mau war. “That’s exactly what you would expect of a colonial administration, or any government in particular, including our own,” laughs Wm Roger Louis. In relation to colonised people, for example, it states that ‘we have tried to imagine what they would tell us if they were to come back from the dead’. That “spoke directly to claims that, if you took out the oral evidence” in Britain’s Gulag, “the whole thing fell apart”, Elkins says. “If only all the rest of us could be ostracised and have to make do with a Pulitzer and a full professorship at Harvard.”. It was a moment when another historian, Niall Ferguson, had won acclaim for his sympathetic writing on British colonialism. Elkins considers them to be the most important new material to emerge from the Hanslope disclosure. Many more documents were coming out. Anderson’s review of the evidence shows how the purging process evolved from colony to colony and allowed substantial latitude to local officials. Massacred – the truth about the British Empire, Like The Conservative Woman? An early summary of the feature film he is developing gives its flavour: “One woman’s journey to tell the story of the colonial British genocide of the Mau Mau. And the story Elkins would tell about those papers would once again plunge her into controversy. Meanwhile, the people of another former colony, Jamaica, yearn to be back under British rule. Call comes after research reveals more than four in ten Britons view the British Empire as a good thing That was the request Caroline Elkins, a Harvard historian, received in 2008. And she stood behind her work. The scale of the cleansing had been enormous. Women worked on uncontroversial topics such as maternal health, not blood and violence during Mau Mau. But the presiding judge, Richard McCombe, dismissed the government’s bid to dodge responsibility as “dishonourable”. For example, three departments had maintained files for each of the reported 80,000 detainees. Her mother was a schoolteacher; her father, a computer-supplies salesman. It was an armed rebellion launched by the Kikuyu, who had lost land during colonisation. Yes, we were taught in great detail about Henry VIII beheading his eight wives, the Plague and the Great Fire of London, but nothing about the British Empire and its part in slavery. But there was one difference now. Elkins paraded with them outside the court. The Commonwealth’s membership of 53 nations, nearly all of them ex-colonies, is testimony to more than the generosity of our international aid programme. The Mau Mau case has fuelled two scholarly debates, one old and one new. Finished. Its adherents mounted gruesome attacks on white settlers and fellow Kikuyu who collaborated with the British administration. is seen by some historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires, in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa To say that a discovery about document destruction will change the whole field is “simply not true”, he says. On 6 April 2011, the debate over Caroline Elkins’s work shifted to the Royal Courts of Justice in London. “We’re a different breed. The British Empire was the worst colonial empire ever in History. The truth is that the Brits may have been top dogs when it came to the size, power and influence of their empire but we have definitely been well down the league table of those who have perpetrated massacres. drove the expansion of the British Empire in Asia What was the impact of the loss of the 13 colonies to the history of the British Empire? 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